Catalonia's regional parliament has voted in favor of independence from Spain, ahead of a vote in the Spanish Senate to seize Catalan region's autonomous powers | NewsBytes But there is no international legal right to secede. The reference to a Catalan nation became unconstitutional. Catalans don’t dance flamenco and they’ve banned bullfighting as cruel and barbaric. Catalonia has tried to sever itself from Spain many times over the centuries, and resisted attempts by Madrid to crush its culture, customs, and language. Constitutional Court Ruling 138/2010, of the 16th December, on the Statute of Autonomy of Catalonia (BOE no. Catalonia formally declared its independence from Spain on Friday (Oct. 27) and the central government in Madrid hit back within hours, stripping the region of all its autonomy. The pro-autonomy Convergence and Union party was founded the following year, and it served as the dominant political force in Catalonia over subsequent decades. In a heated debate on RT, former pro-independence Catalan MP Carles Prats challenged the pro-unionist political scientist Ruben Tamboleo over the validity of Catalonia's proclaimed split from Madrid, who in turn, stripped the region of its autonomy. Gaudí’s biographer Gijs van Hensbergen told 60 Minutes this year that what made Gaudi unique was how he saw space. We’ve taken a look at a few of the aspects of the region that make it unique, from its language, to its pioneering achievements in art, architecture, gastronomy—and human towers. After Catalonia declared independence from Spain, Madrid has declared its intent to suspend the region's autonomy this week under Article 155 of the constitution Newsbytes India The relevance of NATO in 2020 is being questioned. Constitutional Court Ruling 137/2010, of the 16th December, on the Statute of Autonomy of Catalonia (BOE no. Half-chef, half-scientist, his development of radical cooking techniques, such as spherification—turning liquid into spheres usually using sodium alginate, so it looks like little balls of roe—revolutionized the texture, taste, and presentation of food. Spain is becoming a rogue State for the sake of denying its national minorities the exercise of their right to self-determination. His outrageous appearance, with his long, curled moustache, has become as iconic as his art. Perhaps best known for his melting clocks painting, “The Persistence of Memory,” it was a fellow Catalan artist and sculptor Joan Miró who introduced Dalí to the concept of Surrealism. This will be discussed in more detail in the background section. Article 93 of the 1978 Spanish Constitution establishes that Spain must act in a way that complies with the content of international treaties signed by Spain, including the above. For all these reasons I believe that the Catalans, a people that has always expressed itself through peaceful means, has the right to decide its political future in a free and democratic manner. DEBATES. Its levels of autonomy - like those of other Spanish regions - have varied over time.During the 20th century dictatorship of General Franco, the culture, language and identity of Cat… In this sense, it is also important to point out that the organization of referendums in Spain is not illegal, including the organization of independence referendums, as was stated by the UN Working Group on Arbitrary Detention in June 2019. But what makes Catalonia so different from Spain anyway? They’re such an integral part of the local festivals that the towers, or “castells” as they’re known, also have UNESCO World Heritage status. Catalonia is one of Spain's most prosperous regions and already has a high degree of autonomy. Once again, the October 2017 referendum was suspended by the Constitutional Court and violently suppressed by the Spanish law enforcement agencies, reinforcing independence demands. My Debates. Sources: Encyclopaedia Britannica, The Atlantic. A hot topic of the 2020 US elections, student debt is an issue for many Americans. Everyone’s invited to pile onto the human tower, and towns compete with each other as to who can form the highest one. independence that would be granted to Catalonia, despite the opposition of ERC, which favoured full independence, and the PP, which claimed that the statute violated the Constitution. In the past it has also enjoyed varying degrees of autonomy from its more powerful neighbours. Catalonia certainly has a distinctive history, language and culture. Meanwhile, in You won’t find a preference for flamenco when you visit the region. Challenge Period. The costs of going it alone, at least in the short term, would also be considerable for both Spain and Catalonia. Plans to let the people of the eastern region break away from Spain has led to months of constitutional debate. Under article 2 of the Constitution, the referendum is deemed unconstitutional by the Constitutional Court. By providing your email, you agree to the Quartz Privacy Policy. Catalonia’s fiercely independent people won’t be ready to give in easily—their struggle for independence is centuries old, and complex. Catalonia has already taken the steps to ban bullfighting because the population sees the practice as being barbaric and cruel. The region was granted a degree of autonomy once more in 1977, when democracy returned to the country. This repression has included the criminalization of dissidence, censorship in media and internet, lawfare, police brutality, the disqualification of democratically elected public officials, as well as the jailing of political representatives and civil society leaders, including Ms Carme Forcadell and Mr Jordi Sànchez, the former Presidents of the organization I represent. Economic development has favored the cultural renewal of Catalonia and a return of linguistic and nationalist demands. (The BBC has a handy timeline, dating back to the 9th century). Sources: EURACTIV, Ouest-France, Euronews, Constitution of 1978, Chair, Catalan National Assembly and Economics Professor at the University of Barcelona. It is difficult, however, to make a convincing case for an independence referendum, let alone a ‘Yes’ vote should one be held. At The Rift, we believe in people, in individuals. The first separatist movements date back to the 17th century, when the Catalan population revolted against Castilian troops in 1640. image caption Catalonia's future is uncertain, with the region divided over independence Until recently, Barcelona was a city best known for its football, architecture, climate, and culture. In 2014 there was an unofficial referendum (with an estimated turn out of 37-41%) on independence in which 80 per cent of voters said they wanted Catalonia to be an independent state. Daniel Gascón examines where all this leaves the rights of Catalonia’s residents. Organisers said 90% of … Catalonia: A New Independent State in Europe examines the main issues of the political process which is taking place in Catalonia today. The Refurmdum was passed in 2017, there is no need for another one. On November 9, 2014, a first referendum on the independence of Catalonia was organized by the nationalist parties in the region. Catalonia is a region in the Northeast corner of Spain that has a degree of autonomy within the Spanish Constitution but is also part of Spain. 16, of 19.01.2011). One of the key figures in Catalonian Modernism, architect Antoni Gaudí, born in 1852, put Catalonia on the map, transforming Barcelona into a capital of architectural inspiration, and massively influencing generations of designers and artists. Independence would not make it more free. Should gun control be strengthened in the United States? Catalonia was granted an autonomous status in the Spanish Constitution of 1978 and in the organic laws dating from 1979 and 2006. Europe has undergone various nation-state realignments since the end of the Cold War. Today, it is strongly tied to a sense of national identity and pride. The independence issue took center stage as Spain's leading politicians debated the Catalan separatist movement ahead of Sunday's vote. Since then, tensions between Catalonia and Spain have continued to grow and the Spanish authorities are trying to prevent the vote from taking place. These documents recognize Catalonia as a Generality – an autonomous region within the Spanish State. CATALONIA IS NOT SPAIN. The new Statute of Autonomy was approved by 73.2% of voters in a referendum held in Catalonia in June, and came into force in August. Brexit has also added momentum to the case for Scottish independence. We want to create a space where we can voice your views, get the full picture of a debate and shape your own opinions. Catalan is distinctly different from Spanish—that much quickly becomes clear on anyone’s first visit to Barcelona. People of Catalonia love to climb on each other’s shoulders and form huge human towers. But there has never been an independent Catalan state. During the 2017 Catalan independence referendum, the world witnessed the brutal action of the Spanish police against peaceful voters in polling stations. No less than 2,850 Catalan activists and elected representatives have suffered persecution by Spanish authorities since 2017. Nowadays, the independence mouvement grew strong in 2010, when the 2006 Statute of Autonomy of Catalonia was challenged before the Constitutional Court. The Rift presents a debate between experts Pascal Boniface and Michael John Williams. Explore the pros and cons of the debate Catalonia deserves the independence. The independence movement was strengthened when the Spanish Constitutional Court annulled 14 articles of the Statute of Autonomy of Catalonia in 2006. Nor should there be now. Debating Period. Should student debt be cancelled in the United States. When the Franco regime ended it was decided that Catalonia should have autonomy. The regional government already has a measure of self-determination that has been reasonably successful, even after the sometimes brutal att… This day has become the national holiday of Catalonia since 1886. Catalonia is a region of northeastern Spain: it's home to Barcelona, 7.5 million people, and a proud tradition of independence dating back nearly 1,000 years.Although officially part of Spain since the state was created, the region has its own language and cultural identity. In September 2015, the legislative elections in Catalonia ended with a pro-independence majority in power. These movements resurfaced in the 19th century as the region was experiencing strong industrialization. The Court curtailed 27 and stuck down 14 articles of the Statute and declared the reference to ‘nation’ as having no legal effect, which caused immediate reactions in the region. POLLS. Following these events, 10,000 Catalans expressed their dissatisfaction in front of the European Parliament, during the constitutive plenary session on July 2. The right to self-determination is established in Article 1 of the Charter of the United Nations, as well as at the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights. “He’s someone who reinvented the language of architecture, which no other architect has ever managed to do,” van Hensbergen said. This region gathers 15% of the Spanish population and concentrates 20% of the GDP. In the late-1930s, dictator Francisco Franco cracked down on Catalan autonomy and banned the Catalan language. Nevertheless, the Spanish government and courts have been qualifying a Catalan referendum as illegal and unconstitutional, although this is just a masquerade to deny the fundamental rights of a national minority, while conducting a systematic campaign of repression against its members. The Spanish region’s autonomy has been revoked, pending a new regional election in December. Since Spain’s constitutional court overturned this statute in 2010, the regional government has tried unsuccessfully to have it renegotiated, which fueled demands for an independence referendum. Gun control in the United States is a recurring topic – The Rift asked Eric Lundy and Philip Van Cleave their opinions on the matter. Start a New Debate. This statute gives it substantial autonomy, allowing it, among other things, to form its own parliament and to elect a president (head of government) and an executive council. Kick off each morning with coffee and the Daily Brief (BYO coffee). © 2021 Quartz Media, Inc. All rights reserved. Catalan identity can already be freely expressed. Our emails are made to shine in your inbox, with something fresh every morning, afternoon, and weekend. Catalan is recognized as an official language just like Spanish. OPINIONS. Add to My Favorites Report this Debate … Notwithstanding, the Spanish authorities have not complied with international law, nor with the recommendations of international organizations, nor by ceasing the violations of human rights. While the Catalan Parliament voted Spain’s declaration of independence, the Spanish Senate jointly granted extraordinary powers over Catalonia to the President of the Spanish government, Mariano Rajoy. Critics say that increasing the limited autonomy that the region was given in 1978, after the death of General Francisco Franco, will encourage other regions to press for more powers - … Franco ruled Spain until 1975, but the Catalans’ strong sense of identity wasn’t beaten, and the language survived his reign. Just 6.5% of people surveyed answered that Catalonia has “too much autonomy.” At Sunday’s repeat general election , the pro-independence parties (the Catalan Republican Left, Together for Catalonia and the far-left CUP) secured 42.59% of the vote in the region, while those groups that are against secession picked up 39.85%. Secession is only permitted as a last resort where a national minority suffers from the legacy of colonialism or the systematic and egregious violation of basic human rights. The establishment of democratic rule in Spain after Franco’s death did not lessen Catalonia’s desire for autonomy, and in September 1977 limited autonomy was granted to the region. Repression continued afterwards, as numerous fundamental human rights of the Catalans have been violated as testified by international organizations such as Amnesty International. Its capital is Barcelona, ​​and it is also the 6th most populated territory in the European Union. After much debate between Catalan leaders and the government of Spain a statute of autonomy was agreed to in 1979. Spain could opt to give Catalonia more autonomy in return for the region remaining part of Spain. Carles Puigdemont, who promised to organize a referendum on the independence of the region, was elected president of the Generalitat of Catalonia in January 2016. The situation in Catalonia is unresolved. CATALONIA'S quest for independence from Spain could spark a domino effect plunging the European Union into crisis as a map reveals the other regions across the continent desperate for autonomy. After scenes of jubilation on the streets of the Catalan capital Barcelona yesterday, the stage is now set for major tensions as Madrid starts to take back control of the region. The region enjoyed great autonomy until General Franco’s regime, during which its sovereignty was ruthlessly and repeatedly violated. 16, of 19.01.2011). Elections and opinion polls there consistently show the population divided roughly down the middle. The current push for independence, however, has its roots in Catalonia’s 2006 Statute of Autonomy. Furthermore, during the last decade Catalan people and institutions have been suffering the consequences of centralizing policies by the Spanish state, which tries to assimilate both our culture and language while absorbing all economic and political power. The region already enjoys a wide degree of autonomy … Europe Catalonia's independence movement — a brief history The desire of many Catalans to gain independence from Spain has a long history. It’s also compulsorily taught in schools. FOR INDEPENDENCE FOR CATALONIA: AGAINST INDEPENDENCE FOR CATALONIA 1. The political confrontation between the Spanish and Catalan institutions has now reached the international arena, especially the debates concerning international recognition of a new Catalan state and its membership of the European Union (EU) and … Required fields are marked *. We believe it is necessary to voice every opinion without taking sides and that every opinion should be heard. The right to national self-determination is a cornerstone of international law. Adrià’s elBulli restaurant in the little town of Roses, Catalonia, was a pilgrimage site for foodies, and regularly voted best restaurant in the world, before Adrià shut it down in 2011—but only so he could get back into his science lab and eventually open some new restaurants. Catalonia's pro-independence leaders then went ahead with a full referendum on 1 October 2017, which was also declared illegal by Spain's constitutional court. Catalonia. The campaign for Catalan independence rests on a simple proposition: as a matter of history, culture, language, and contemporary political and economic realities, the ‘Catalan nation’ has the right to self-determination which it should exercise by seceding from Spain and establishing an independent, democratic state within the EU. Your email address will not be published. As this decision changed considerably the status of the region, it spurred the Catalan people’s unrest. Dalí’s depictions of the warped images of his dreams and subconscious shook up the art world. Catalonia’s push for independence is far from new. More economic freedom, increased cultural recognition and a return to the autonomy statute of 2006 would likely satisfy the desires of the majority of anti- and pro-independence supporters alike. These are the core obsessions that drive our newsroom—defining topics of seismic importance to the global economy. For or against a new independence referendum for Catalonia? 1. However, he was denied access to the European Parliament and the allocation of his MEP badge. The War of the Spanish Succession followed (1701-1714) during which the Catalan army fought against Bourbon King Philippe V to defend the claim of the Habsburg Crown on the throne of Spain. But, otherwise, the prerequisites for secession are not even close to being satisfied anywhere on the continent, particularly in the EU. This article recognizes “nationalities and regions” the right to “claim autonomy”, but sovereignty belongs to the Spanish people alone, because the Spanish nation is an “indissoluble unit”. She said her party the republican left (ERC) hopes it is the first step towards independence. The Principality of Catalonia was an entity of the Crown of Aragon, created by the dynastic union of the County of Barcelona and the Kingdom of Aragon in 1137. The Spanish region of Catalonia is set to hold a referendum on independence on October 1. Voting Period. Questions around nationhood, tax autonomy, international representation and policy powers are at the heart of Sunday's violence-marred independence referendum in Catalonia, Spain's wealthiest region. It’s a joint-official language with Spanish, and public servants are mandated to use it. Catalonia officials say … Catalonia debates as independence declaration looms Catalan President Carles Puigdemont could declare independence from Spain on Tuesday ... which could mean suspending the region’s autonomy. His stunning, still unfinished Sagrada Familia basilica in Barcelona draws millions of visitors each year, and is just one of the seven Gaudi works that are on UNESCO’s World Heritage List. The situation first escalated on Oct. 1, when nearly 90% of Catalonian voters backed independence from Spain in a controversial and disputed referendum. Calls for complete independence grew steadily until July 2010, when the Constitutional Court in Madrid overruled part of the 2006 autonomy statute, stating that there is no legal basis for recognising Catalonia as a nation within Spain. The names of the Catalan representatives were not on the list transmitted by the Spanish authorities since they had not traveled to Spain to take the oath. As this decision changed considerably the status of the region, it spurred the Catalan people’s unrest. Your email address will not be published. The Catalan independence referendum of 2017, also known by the numeronym 1-O (for "1 October") in Spanish media, was an independence referendum held on 1 October 2017 in the Spanish autonomous community of Catalonia, passed by the Parliament of Catalonia as the Law on the Referendum on Self-determination of Catalonia and called by the Generalitat de Catalunya. These are some of our most ambitious editorial projects. Nor is there a clear majority in favour in Catalonia itself. The leaders of the independence movement, including Carles Puigdemont, fled to Belgium in order to avoid criminal repression. Catalonia formally declared its independence from Spain on Friday (Oct. 27) and the central government in Madrid hit back within hours, stripping the region of all its autonomy. The defeat of the Catalans on September 11, 1714 resulted in the loss of their constitutions and their institutional system as the Principality of Catalonia. It’s in part due to the Barcelona native that we have foams, vapors, sands, and bursting pearls on our plates today. Google Search. FORUMS. Even though he is no fan of the term “molecular gastronomy,” the Catalan father of the movement, Ferran Adrià, is lauded as one of the most important chefs of all time. Aside from the hollow formal trappings of statehood, such as a flag, an anthem, parades and national holidays – and sparing, particularly the more prosperous sectors of Catalan society, from paying taxes to the Spanish exchequer – it is not even clear what the benefits of independence would be. 6Th most populated territory in the background section have suffered persecution by Spanish authorities since 2017 a hot of! A rogue State for the sake of denying its national minorities the exercise of right. Dreams and subconscious shook up the art world deny the Catalan people ’ s push for independence is far new... The eastern region break away from Spain anyway becoming a rogue State the. Issue for many Americans ban bullfighting because the population divided roughly down the middle in May 2019 Carles! Testified by international organizations such as Amnesty international Kingdom has no legal base to deny the people... 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